Bizarre, unpredictable behavior, disordered thought patterns, peculiar, even unintelligible speech, and extreme distrust can drastically limit the clinician's ability to conduct therapy.
It is often seemingly impossible to determine the cause of these behaviors: Are they a result of the disease, the side effects of drugs, or the patient's efforts to cope? In this brilliant and insightful book, Dr. Michael Selzer and his colleagues offer a radical new perspective on understanding and treating the schizophrenic person. What is often lacking, they argue, is a clear understanding of the patient's own experience of his world. Without a realistic appraisal of the patient's physiological and psychological vulnerabilities, the effect of various stresses on him, and his own unique adaptation to these circumstances, no effective drug or psychotherapeutic treatment intervention is possible.
This thoughtful, intelligent, and acutely perceptive book is a major breakthrough for working with persons with schizophrenia. The authors have shown that therapy with the schizophrenic person is not only possible but highly rewarding. MIchael Selzer, M. Timothy B. Sutton, M. Monica Carsky, Ph. Renan argued that factors such as ethnicity, language, religion, economics, geography, ruling dynasty and historic military deeds were important but not sufficient.
Needed was a spiritual soul that allowed as a "daily referendum" among the people. German philosopher Monika Kirloskar-Steinbach does not think liberalism and nationalism are compatible, but she points out there are many liberals who think they are.
She states:. It was facilitated when French Emperor Napoleon seized control of Spain and Portugal, breaking the chain of control from the Spanish and Portuguese kings to the local governors. Allegiance to the Napoleonic states was rejected, and increasingly the creoles demanded independence. They achieved it after civil wars — Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the "nation" is defined in terms of ethnicity.
However, it is different from a purely cultural definition of "the nation," which allows people to become members of a nation by cultural assimilation ; and from a purely linguistic definition, according to which "the nation" consists of all speakers of a specific language. Whereas nationalism in and of itself does not imply a belief in the superiority of one ethnicity or country over others, some nationalists support ethnocentric supremacy or protectionism.
The humiliation of being a second-class citizen led regional minorities in multiethnic states, such as Great Britain, Spain, France, Germany, Russia and the Ottoman Empire, to define nationalism in terms of loyalty to their minority culture, especially language and religion. Forced assimilation was anathema. For the politically dominant cultural group, assimilation was necessary to minimize disloyalty and treason and therefore became a major component of nationalism. A second factor for the politically dominant group was competition with neighboring states—nationalism involved a rivalry, especially in terms of military prowess and economic strength.
Economic nationalism , or economic patriotism , refers to an ideology that favors state interventionism in the economy, with policies that emphasize domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation , even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital. Religious nationalism is the relationship of nationalism to a particular religious belief, dogma, or affiliation where a shared religion can be seen to contribute to a sense of national unity, a common bond among the citizens of the nation.
Left-wing nationalism occasionally known as socialist nationalism, not to be confused with national socialism  refers to any political movement that combines left-wing politics with nationalism. Many nationalist movements are dedicated to national liberation , in the view that their nations are being persecuted by other nations and thus need to exercise self-determination by liberating themselves from the accused persecutors.
Anti-revisionist Marxist—Leninism is closely tied with this ideology, and practical examples include Stalin's early work Marxism and the National Question and his socialism in one country edict, which declares that nationalism can be used in an internationalist context, fighting for national liberation without racial or religious divisions. Some nationalists exclude certain groups.
Some nationalists, defining the national community in ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historic, or religious terms or a combination of these , may then seek to deem certain minorities as not truly being a part of the 'national community' as they define it. Sometimes a mythic homeland is more important for the national identity than the actual territory occupied by the nation. Territorial nationalists assume that all inhabitants of a particular nation owe allegiance to their country of birth or adoption. Citizenship is idealized by territorial nationalists. A criterion of a territorial nationalism is the establishment of a mass, public culture based on common values, codes and traditions of the population.
There are different types of nationalism including Risorgimento nationalism and Integral nationalism. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany , according to Alter and Brown, were examples of integral nationalism.
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Some of the qualities that characterize integral nationalism are anti-individualism , statism , radical extremism, and aggressive-expansionist militarism. The term Integral Nationalism often overlaps with fascism, although many natural points of disagreement exist. Integral nationalism arises in countries where a strong military ethos has become entrenched through the independence struggle, when, once independence is achieved, it is believed that a strong military is required to ensure the security and viability of the new state. Also, the success of such a liberation struggle results in feelings of national superiority that may lead to extreme nationalism.
Pan-nationalism is unique in that it covers a large area span. Pan-nationalism focuses more on "clusters" of ethnic groups.
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Pan-Slavism is one example of Pan-nationalism. The goal is to unite all Slavic people into one country. They did succeed by uniting several south Slavic people into Yugoslavia in This form of nationalism came about during the decolonization of the post war periods. It was a reaction mainly in Africa and Asia against being subdued by foreign powers.
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It also appeared in the non-Russian territories of the Tsarist empire and later, the USSR, where Ukrainianists and Islamic Marxists condemned Russian Bolshevik rule in their territories as a renewed Russian imperialism. This form of nationalism took many guises, including the peaceful passive resistance movement led by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian subcontinent. Benedict Anderson argued that anti-colonial nationalism is grounded in the experience of literate and bilingual indigenous intellectuals fluent in the language of the imperial power, schooled in its "national" history, and staffing the colonial administrative cadres up to but not including its highest levels.
Post-colonial national governments have been essentially indigenous forms of the previous imperial administration. Racial nationalism is an ideology that advocates a racial definition of national identity. Racial nationalism seeks to preserve a given race through policies such as banning race mixing and the immigration of other races. Specific examples are black nationalism and white nationalism. Sport spectacles like football's World Cup command worldwide audiences as nations battle for supremacy and the fans invest intense support for their national team.
Increasingly people have tied their loyalties and even their cultural identity to national teams. The French Empire was not far behind the British in the use of sports to strengthen colonial solidarity with France.
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Colonial officials promoted and subsidized gymnastics, table games, and dance and helped football spread to French colonies. Feminist critique interprets nationalism as a mechanism through which sexual control and repression are justified and legitimised, often by a dominant masculine power. The gendering of nationalism through socially constructed notions of masculinity and femininity not only shapes what masculine and feminine participation in the building of that nation will look like, but also how the nation will be imagined by nationalists.
History, political ideologies, and religions place most nations along a continuum of muscular nationalism. Nations and gender systems are mutually supportive constructions : the nation fulfils the masculine ideals of comradeship and brotherhood. Critics of nationalism have argued that it is often unclear what constitutes a "nation", or whether a nation is a legitimate unit of political rule. Nationalists hold that the boundaries of a nation and a state should coincide with one another, thus nationalism tends to oppose multiculturalism.
Philosopher A. Grayling describes nations as artificial constructs, "their boundaries drawn in the blood of past wars". He argues that "there is no country on earth which is not home to more than one different but usually coexisting culture. Cultural heritage is not the same thing as national identity". Nationalism is inherently divisive because it highlights perceived differences between people, emphasizing an individual's identification with their own nation.
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