In "The Moral Psychology of Science," Stephen Toulmin discusses the aims and motives of scientists in order to refute the view that the only respectable motive for doing science is the disinterested pursuit of value-free truth. Toulmin argues that this view is a barrier to understanding that science is not value-free.
There are three papers on particular scientific theories or controver sies, two of them, by Steven Marcus and Joseph Margolis, on Freud. To determine whether Mendelian theories are somehow intrinsically conservative and Lamarckian theories left-wing, historian Loren R. Grahm examines eugenics movements in Germany and Soviet Russia in the s.
Grahm concludes that the values of political and scien tific authorities determined the political implications of these theories. In a section misleadingly entitled "The Foundations of Ethics," Gerald Dworkin discusses a number of interpretations of the thesis that a moral agent is necessarily autonomous, and he finds reasons for rejecting the thesis on all of its interpretations.
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Gregory Vlastos writes about the implications of Plato's discussion of justice in the Re public for the rights of citizens of an ideal polis. These are two good papers, but they do not address the issues raised by Maclntyre and Toulmin. The biologist Richard D. Alexander, in "Natural Selection and Soci etal Laws," maintains that evolutionary biology will eventually pro vide "background explanations" for all human activities.
Such topics as sociality, justice, and law-breaking are discussed from this perspec tive. The position is reminiscent of Hobbes's, with natural selection playing the role of Hobbes's reason and human contrivance. Kenneth F.
Schaffner comments on Alexander's paper. In a concluding essay, Robert C. Solomon strives gamely to draw together the issues and dis cussions in the preceding papers.? Wallace Gallie, W. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, This study attempts to highlight and clarify the central themes in four important theoretical perspectives on the nature of war and the international order. Perhaps because it is an enlarged version of the Wiles lectures, the book is written with a refreshing verve and fluent, relaxed elegance?
The bulk of the work con sists of four largely independent essays, each dealing with a single This content downloaded from The essay dealing with Marx and Engels is the most helpful and rich: by focusing on Engels's voluminous but hitherto neglected military writings, Gallie is able to shed intriguing new light on the revolutionary strategy of the founders of Marxism.
Philosophers of peace and war ( edition) | Open Library
It is per haps not surprising that the most ambitious chapter theoretically, the one on Kant, is the least satisfactory. The author offers a sensible corrective to many misreadings of Kant's political works and presents a fairly accurate overview of Kant's internationalist program. But be cause Gallie fails to take into account either the crucial Kantian con cept of the State of Nature or the basic Kantian distinction between virtue and justice the moral and the legal-political , the real difficul ties tend to be glossed over, and Kant is made to seem rather less hardheaded, and more moralistic, than he in fact is.
Gallie makes few efforts to construct a dialogue among the four posi tions he is studying and has little in the way of explanation of just what it is that justifies bringing them together. In some brief introductory and concluding remarks he argues that the thinkers under consideration, though they do not form "a school, nor even a clear succession or progression of thought about peace and war," do consti tute a "constellation, a number of neighboring sources of intellectual light converging upon, and suggesting the outlines of, the most urgent political problems of our age.
Above all, he shuts off debate on what is in truth the most urgent question of international relations in our time. Is it the case? Or is the old-fashioned and simple, but maybe not so simple-minded, view still accurate? Geach, P. About us.
ISBN 13: 9780521296519
Editorial team. Review of Metaphysics 33 2 This study attempts to highlight and clarify the central themes in four important theoretical perspectives on the nature of war and the international order. Perhaps because it is an enlarged version of the Wiles lectures, the book is written with a refreshing verve and fluent, relaxed elegance—purchased at the cost of some redundancy and lack of crispness.
The bulk of the work consists of four largely independent essays, each dealing with a single thinker or outlook. It is perhaps not surprising that the most ambitious chapter theoretically, the one on Kant, is the least satisfactory. But because Gallie fails to take into account either the crucial Kantian concept of the State of Nature or the basic Kantian distinction between virtue and justice, the real difficulties tend to be glossed over, and Kant is made to seem rather less hardheaded, and more moralistic, than he in fact is.
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Philosophers of Peace and War: Kant, Clausewitz, Marx, Engles and Tolstoy
Edit this record. Mark as duplicate. Find it on Scholar. Request removal from index. Revision history. From the Publisher via CrossRef no proxy pdcnet. Configure custom resolver. Michael Heinrich - - Science and Society 60 4 - Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Roland Boer - unknown. Historical Materialism. John Kilcullen - unknown. Marxism as Permanet Revolution.
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Related Philosophers of Peace and War: Kant, Clausewitz, Marx, Engels and Tolstoy (The Wiles lectures)
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