All those surviving members who had already been made Knights Companion of the Order were retroactively known as Knights Grand Commander. Former viceroys and other high officials, as well as those who served in the Department of the Secretary of State for India for at least thirty years were eligible for appointment. Rulers of Indian Princely States were also eligible for appointment.
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Like some rulers of princely states , some rulers of particular prestige, for example the Maharajas of the Rana dynasty or the Sultans of Oman, were usually appointed Knights Grand Commanders. Women, save the princely rulers, were ineligible for appointment to the order.
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They were, unlike the habit of many other orders, admitted as "Knights", rather than as "Dames" or "Ladies". The order's statutes were specially amended to permit the admission of Queen Mary as a Knight Grand Commander in On certain " collar days " designated by the Sovereign, members attending formal events wore the order's collar over their military uniform, formal day dress, or evening wear.
When collars were worn either on collar days or on formal occasions such as coronations , the badge was suspended from the collar. Unlike the insignia of most other British chivalric orders, the insignia of the Order of the Star of India did not incorporate crosses, as they were deemed unacceptable to the Indian Princes appointed to the Order. Members of all classes of the Order were assigned positions in the order of precedence. Wives of members of all classes also featured on the order of precedence, as did sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Commanders and Knights Commanders.
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See order of precedence in England and Wales for the exact positions. Such forms were not used by peers and Indian princes, except when the names of the former were written out in their fullest forms.
Knights Grand Commanders were also entitled to receive heraldic supporters. They could, furthermore, encircle their arms with a depiction of the circlet a circle bearing the motto and the collar ; the former is shown either outside or on top of the latter. Knights Commanders and Companions were permitted to display the circlet, but not the collar, surrounding their arms.
The badge is depicted suspended from the collar or circlet. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Star of India disambiguation. The London Gazette. Retrieved 4 December The London Gazette Supplement.
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Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom. Badge of Honour Elizabeth Cross. There was the ever-present possibility that the patient would vomit and choke during surgery. Operating rooms — often makeshift places for medical procedures — reverberated with the screams of patients. The likelihood of long-term trauma from the surgery itself was ever-present. Medieval dental extraction. Even what we would today consider a simpler procedure, a tooth extraction, was a dangerous and painful procedure.
In the medieval and early modern eras, extractions were often performed by barbers — whose occupation was quite different from modern-day barbers who focus on beards and hair. Victorian dentistry kit. In areas where barbers were not available, the only other man with the correct tools for pulling teeth was the local blacksmith.
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Neither the barber nor the blacksmith offered sanitary conditions or painless procedures. Until the nineteenth century, however, these were often the only options for dental patients. Victorian advertisement for laughing gas.
Adequate pain relief was also beyond the reach of science until the Victorian age. During surgeries prior to the development of anesthesia, patients were often given alcohol or similar narcotics to dull the pain. From the moment of its discovery, laughing gas was popular as a parlor trick, with groups of partygoers using the gas to humor themselves since the effects often leave users light-headed and flighty.
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Though most of the audience was likely there for amusement, one participant injured himself during the performance, and Wells noticed that the man seemed to suffer no pain from his injury. Miniature portrait of Horace Wells. Wells began to experiment with nitrous oxide, initially using it to extract one of his own teeth and then in his practice as a dentist.
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Excited by the results, the Connecticut dentist travelled to Boston in to demonstrate his findings at Massachusetts General Hospital, where his former apprentice William W.
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